1. A type of cell formed in the myelopoietic, lymphoid, and reticular portions of the reticuloendothelial system in various parts of the body, and normally present in those sites and in the circulating blood (rarely in other tissues). Under various abnormal conditions the total numbers or proportions, or both, may be characteristically increased, decreased, or unaltered, and leukocytes may be present in other tissues and organs. Leukocytes represent three lines of development from primitive elements: myeloid, lymphoid, and monocytic series. On the basis of features observed with various methods of staining with polychromatic dyes (Wright stain) cells of the myeloid series are frequently termed granular leukocytes, or granulocytes; cells of the lymphoid and monocytic series also have granules in the cytoplasm, but owing to their tiny size and varied properties (frequently not clearly visualized with routine methods), lymphocytes and monocytes are sometimes termed nongranular or agranular leukocytes. Granulocytes are commonly known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (also polynuclear or multinuclear leukocytes), inasmuch as the mature nucleus is divided into two to five rounded or ovoid lobes that are connected with thin strands or small bands of chromatin; they consist of three distinct types: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, named on the basis of the staining reactions of the cytoplasmic granules. Cells of the lymphocytic series occur as three types, based on the identity of their surface receptors: B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and null cells. Morphologically, there are two, somewhat arbitrarily designated, normal varieties: small and large lymphocytes; the former represent the ordinary forms and are conspicuously more numerous in the circulating blood and normal lymphoid tissue; the latter may be found in normal circulating blood but are more easily observed in lymphoid tissue. The small lymphocytes have nuclei that are deeply or densely stained (the chromatin is coarse and bulky) and almost fill the cells, with only a slight rim of cytoplasm around the nuclei; the large lymphocytes have nuclei that are approximately the same size as, or only slightly larger than, those of the small forms, but there is a broader, easily visualized band of cytoplasm around the nuclei. Cells of the monocytic series are usually larger than the other leukocytes, and are characterized by a relatively abundant, slightly opaque, pale blue or blue-gray cytoplasm that contains myriad extremely fine reddish-blue granules. Monocyte nuclei are usually indented, reniform, or horseshoe shaped, but are sometimes rounded or ovoid; their nuclei are usually large and centrally placed and, even when eccentrically located, are completely surrounded by at least a small band of cytoplasm.

white blood cell

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